Bats of Saint Martin, French West Indies/Sint Maarten, Netherlands Antilles

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Six species of bats have been previously reported from the Antillean island of Saint Martin/Sint Maarten—Artibeus jamaicensis, Brachyphylla cavernarum, Molossus molossus, Tadarida brasiliensis, Noctilio leporinus, and Myotis nigricans nesopolus. Our field research reported herein documents an additional three species of bats from the island for the first time—Monophyllus plethodon, Ardops nichollsi, and Natalus stramineus. Re-examination of the single voucher of Myotis nigricans nesopolus has led us to exclude this species from the fauna of Saint Martin/Sint Maarten. Based on our field research and the study of specimens housed in museum collections, we present information on the eight species of bats that we have documented as occurring on Saint Martin/Sint Maarten. The average rate of fruit bat captures on Saint Martin/Sint Maarten (0.92 bats per net-night—BNN) falls towards the lower end of the range (0.65–2.47 BNN) reported from nearby islands in the northern Lesser Antilles and below the range (2.20–5.93 BNN) reported for mainland populations of Neotropical fruit bats. We discuss possible causes of these decreased population levels and we express some concerns about the future conservation status of the chiropteran fauna of the island.

Murciélagos de Saint Martin, Indias Occidentales francesas/Sint Maarten, Antillas holandesas. Seis especies de murciélagos han sido registradas previamente para la Isla de Saint Martin/Sint Maarten, en las Antillas: Artibeus jamaicensis, Brachyphylla cavernarum, Molossus molossus, Tadarida brasiliensis, Noctilio leporinus y Myotis nigricans nesopolus. Nuestras investigaciones de campo ha permitido documentar por primera vez la presencia de tres especies adicionales para la isla: Monophyllus plethodon, Ardops nichollsi y Natalus stramineus. La reexaminación de un único ejemplar de Myotis nigricans nesopolus nos llevó a excluir a esta especie de la fauna de Saint Martin/Sint Maarten. Nuestros estudios de campo y la examinación de ejemplares depositados en colecciones de museos nos ha permitido presentar información sobre las ocho especies de murciélagos que hemos podido documentar en Saint Martin/Sint Maarten. El promedio de captura de murciélagos frugívoros (0.92 murciélagos por noche – BNN) cayó hacia el extremo más bajo del rango (0.65–2.47 BNN) reportado para islas cercanas al norte en las Antillas Menores, y por debajo del rango (2.20–5.93 BNN) reportado para poblaciones de murciélagos frugívoros neotropicales del continente. Se discuten las posibles causas de esas disminuciones en los niveles poblacionales y se presentan comentarios sobre nuestras preocupaciones sobre el futuro del estado de conservación de la fauna de murciélagos de la isla.

Mammals of the Cosigüina Peninsula of Nicaragua


Nicaragua’s Cosigüina Peninsula, located at the northwestern tip of the country, is one of the most poorly studied biotic regions in Central America. The peninsula has been
occupied for millennia because the climate of the region supported human habitation and because of its strategic position along the rich Pacific coast. The combination of long-term occupancy by humans and the cataclysmic eruptions of Volcán Cosigüina have produced a heavily impacted landscape. During the 1960s, the University of Kansas conducted multiyear field surveys of the terrestrial mammals on the peninsula and the adjacent mainland to quantify species diversity, relationships, abundances, habitat use, and reproduction. The mammalian fauna of the peninsula contains at least 39 species of terrestrial mammals, which includes 7 orders and 17 families. These include Didelphimorphia (2 species)—Didelphidae, 2; Chiroptera (22)—Emballonuridae, 2; Noctilionidae, 1; Mormoopidae, 1; Phyllostomidae, 12; Vespertilionidae, 3; Molossidae, 3; Carnivora (4)—Procyonidae, 1; Mustelidae, 1; Felidae, 2; Perissodactyla (1)—Tapiridae, 1; Artiodactyla (1)—Cervidae, 1; Rodentia (8)—Sciuridae, 1; Heteromyidae, 1; Muridae, 5; Dasyproctidae, 1; Lagomorpha (1)—Leporidae, 1. We provide new information on distributions, systematics, morphometrics, and natural history of the species of terrestrial mammals on the Cosigüina Peninsula, including a number of new records for the peninsula. We document that diversity and abundances of mammals can be substantial in a heavily impacted landscape. In comparison with five other mammalian faunas in Nicaragua, the Cosigüina fauna is most similar in size and diversity with those from elsewhere in the Pacific lowlands. The fauna from the Cordillera los Maribios, which is composed of the volcanic peaks along the eastern edge of the Pacific Lowlands, has the lowest number of species recorded for any of the six faunas with only 21 species recorded; however, this fauna may be under sampled or the unstable environments offered by these active volcanoes may not support a large or diverse mammalian fauna. The mammalian faunas from the remaining two physiographic regions of Nicaragua—Central Highlands and Atlantic Lowlands—have larger, more diverse faunas than that of the Cosigüina Peninsula and elsewhere in the Pacific lowlands. Three reserves in Nicaragua’s Sistema Nacional de Áreas Protegidas now protect more than one fourth of the peninsula.

Carnivores from the mexican state of Puebla: distribution, taxonomy, and conservation

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We examined 96 museum specimens belonging to 14 species of Carnivora from the Mexican State of Puebla. In addition, four species were documented based on literature records and by indirect evidence. The carnivorous mammals of Puebla belong to 5 families, 18 genera, 18 species and 23 subspecies. Eight of these 23 taxa are reported herein for the first time from the state of Puebla. Of the 18 species, Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Lontra longicaudis, Taxidea taxus, and Galictis vittata are considered by Norma Oficial Mexicana as threatened species, Leopardus wiedii and Eira barbara in danger of extinction, and Potos flavus is under special protection. We found Lynx rufus, Canis latrans, Taxidea taxus, and Bassariscus astutus were found only in the Nearctic region of the State, whereas Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Leopardus wiedii, Lontra longicaudis, Galictis vittata, Eira barbara, Potos flavus, and Nasua narica were found only in the Neotropical region of the State. The remaining seven species (Puma concolor, Urocyon cinereoargenteus, Mustela frenata, Mephitis macroura, Spilogale putorius, Conepatus leuconotus, and Procyon lotor) have been taken in both the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. Localities in the Sierra Norte de Puebla had the greatest species richness and abundance of individuals. The carnivores confront serious conservation problems in the state because they are hunted indiscriminately as trophies and by the local residents as harmful species. Moreover they are hunted for economic benefit by the sale of theirs skins or as living pets. The carnivores in some areas are used as food items and for therapeutic proprieties of their fat, skin, or bones. Unfortunately at this time we can’t assess the full impact of these activities on the local populations.

The Xenarthrans of Nicaragua


The mammalian fauna of Nicaragua includes seven species in the order Xenarthra, including the brown-throated three-toed sloth (Bradypus variegatus) in the family
Bradypodidae, Hoffmann’s two-toed sloth (Choloepus hoffmanni) in the family Megalonychidae, the northern naked-tailed armadillo (Cabassous centralis) and nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) in the family Dasypodidae, and the silky anteater (Cyclopes didactylus) and northern tamandua (Tamandua mexicana) in the family Myrmecophagidae. Additionally, the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) in the family Myrmecophagidae is (or was) certainly part of the fauna of Nicaragua but has yet to be documented there. Based on 133 xenarthran specimens available in museums and our observations, we herein review and provide new information on distributions, systematics, morphometrics, and natural history of these species in Nicaragua. Replacement of the milk dentition in Dasypus novemcinctus is described and illustrated, documenting the most common adult dental formula of i 0/0, c 0/0, p 7/7, m 1/1 = 32.

Los Xenarthra de Nicaragua. La fauna mamífera de Nicaragua incluye siete especies del orden Xenarthra, incluyendo el perezoso de tres dedos (Bradypus variegatus) en la familia Bradypodidae, el perezoso (Choloepus hoffmanni) en la familia Megalonychidae, el armadillo zopilote (Cabassous centralis) y el cusuco (Dasypus novemcinctus) en la familia Dasypodidae, y el tapacara (Cyclopes didactylus) y el oso hormiguero (Tamandua mexicana) en la familia Myrmecophagidae. Además, el oso caballo (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) en la familia Myrmecophagidae es (o fue) ciertamente parte de la fauna de Nicaragua pero todavía no ha sido documentado allá. Basados en 133 especímenes de Xenarthra disponibles en museos y nuestras observaciones, revisamos y proveemos información nueva sobre distribuciones, sistemática, morfométrica y la historia natural de estas especies en Nicaragua. El reemplazo de la dentición láctea en Dasypus novemcinctus se describe e ilustra, documentando la fórmula dental adulta más común de i 0/0, c 0/0, p 7/7, m 1/1 = 32.

The heteromyd rodents from the Mexican state of Puebla

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We examined 300 specimens of the three species of heteromyids collected in 75 localities from the Mexican state of Puebla. Taxonomic recognition to the subspecific level allowed the identification of Perognathus flavus mexicanus, Dipodomys phillipsii oaxacae, D. p. perotensis, Liomys irroratus texensis, L. i. torridus, and, for the first time for the state, L. i. alleni. External and cranial measurements of adult specimens are presented along with data concerning sexual secondary variation in Liomys irroratus. The localities are described according to the characteristics of regional mammalian biogeographic provinces.

Los roedores heterómidos del Estado mexicano de Puebla. Se examinaron 300 ejemplares de heterómidos incluidos en tres especies y procedentes de 75 localidades en el Estado de Puebla. El reconocimiento subespecífico permite identificar a Perognathus flavus mexicanus, Dipodomys phillipsii oaxacensis, D. p. perotensis, Liomys irroratus texensis, L. i. torridus y, por primera ocasión para la entidad, a L. i. alleni. De todos los ejemplares se consignan tanto las medidas externas como las craneales. Hembras y machos de Liomys irroratus presentan bajo dimorfismo sexual secundario. Las localidades de procedencia de los ejemplares examinados se ubican dentro de la regionalización mastofaunística del Estado y se citan las características fundamentales de las provincias respectivas.