Composição e caracterização da mastofauna de médio e grande porte do Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais, Brasil

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O bioma Cerrado é um dos 34 “hotspots” devido à sua riqueza de espécies, alto grau de endemismo e por apresentar apenas 20% de sua cobertura original. O Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, situado na região central do Estado de Minas Gerais, está inserido neste bioma. De agosto de 2001 a julho de 2002, as espécies de mamíferos de médio e grande porte foram inventariadas através de censos, evidências indiretas e armadilhas de pegadas. Foram registradas 26 espécies, representando cerca de 51% das espécies de mamíferos de médio e grande porte do Cerrado. Das espécies registradas, quatro se encontram ameaçadas de extinção para o país e oito para o Estado. A maior riqueza de espécies foi encontrada em ambientes de mata ciliar, ressaltando a importância destes hábitats para a comunidade de mamíferos do Cerrado. As espécies que apresentaram maior número de registros foram aquelas que se adaptam a ambientes modificados ou apresentam naturalmente alta densidade populacional. As espécies que apresentaram menos registros foram aquelas que se encontram ameaçadas de extinção ou possuem naturalmente baixa densidade populacional. Armadilhas de pegadas não foram eficientes para amostrar os mamíferos de médio e grande porte, registrando apenas seis espécies, enquanto censos e vestígios amostraram as demais espécies.


Large and medium sized mammals from Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, Mina Gearais, Brazil. The Cerrado is one of the 34 hotspots because of its species richness, high degree of endemism, and because just 20% of its original cover still remains. The Serra do Cipó National Park, located on the Central part of Minas Gerais State is inserted in the Cerrado domain. From August 2001 to July 2002, medium and large sized mammal species were surveyed by census, indirect tracks and track stations. We recorded 26 species representing 51% of all medium/large sized mammals of Cerrado. From those, four species are considered endangered at national level while eight are considered endangered at state level. The highest richness was found on gallery forest, highlighting the importance of these habitat for the mammals of the Cerrado. The track stations were not efficient to sampling medium/large sized mammals recording just six species while the remaining species were recorded by census and indirect tracks. The species with higher records were those well adapted to disturbed environments or which present high populational densities while the least recorded were the endangered species or those with naturally lower populational densities.

Percepción y actitud humanas hacia la predación de ganado ovino por el zorro colorado (Pseudalopex culpaeus) en Santa Cruz, Patagonia argentina

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Se ha elaborado una encuesta para evaluar los niveles de conocimiento, percepción y actitud de los productores ganaderos y el público en general, en Patagonia, hacia el zorro colorado (Pseudalopex culpaeus), así como el papel de este como predador de ganado ovino. Los productores ganaderos consideran al zorro colorado una especie perjudicial. Según ellos es el predador que más bajas produce en el ganado, mientras que los no productores (público en general) consideran que las dos especies de zorros, colorado y gris (Pseudalopex griseus), predan por igual. Los productores identifican al zorro colorado como responsable de la muerte de una oveja fundamentalmente por la forma en que ésta ha sido matada, y en menor medida por la forma en que ha sido consumida. La meteorología adversa y el robo también fueron identificados como causas importantes de pérdida de ganado. El 92% de los productores considera necesario controlar las poblaciones silvestres de zorro colorado. De los que lo han hecho, un 56% considera que sus esfuerzos fueron útiles. Los no productores conocen poco sobre los esfuerzos de control, predominando en ellos la idea de que no son efectivos. Esta encuesta puso de manifiesto el aprecio que los productores tienen por el veneno. Lo consideran un método eficiente y económico. Entre 12 métodos alternativos de control, prefirieron los que implicaban la muerte del zorro, mientras que los no productores los rechazaron. Tanto productores como no productores indicaron mayoritariamente no estar dispuestos a perder ninguna oveja por predación. La siguiente categoría de tolerancia, coincidente también para ambos grupos, fue considerar admisibles pérdidas ubicadas entre el 1% y el 5% del total de corderos producidos cada año. Los resultados confirman que los productores ganaderos van a continuar utilizando el control de predadores para mitigar las pérdidas de ganado. Por ello es importante desarrollar métodos de control selectivos que sean efectivamente aceptados por los potenciales usuarios. Un cambio en las prácticas actuales de control de predadores posibilitará el restablecimiento y conservación de especies indirectamente afectadas por el uso indiscriminado de veneno.


Culpeo fox (Pseudalopex culpaeus) depredation on sheep in Santa Cruz: Perceptions and attitudes of the ranch sector and the general public. Culpeo foxes (Pseudalopex culpaeus) predate on sheep in Patagonia, and thus they are considered a pest by ranchers. Culpeo populations are controlled using both selective (trained dogs, guns) and non-selective methods (poisoned carcasses). The use of selective control methods, instead of highly non-selective ones, would allow reestablishment of depleted non target species. Before initiating the development of new control methods, it is important to know the perceptions and attitudes of members of the rancher sector toward fox depredation, as well as their preferences on control methods. Therefore, we surveyed sheep producers in Santa Cruz Province. We also surveyed the general public to compare the perceptions and attitudes of this group with ranchers’ opinions. Rancher surveys were administrated through ranchers association and the Consejo Agrario Provincial (CAP). General public surveys were completed during interviews. Both ranchers and the general public showed a good knowledge of the fox species. Ranchers indicated the Culpeo fox is the main sheep predator, while general public considered both fox species (Culpeo and Grey fox, P. griseus) to have similar predation rates on sheep. Ranchers identify the Culpeo fox as the sheep predator mainly because of the way it kills its prey, and secondarily because of the way it consumes the carcass. Most ranchers (92%) consider fox control as a priority, but only 56% consider their previous control efforts as successful. The general public knows little about control efforts, but in general perceives control programs as unsuccessful. Our surveys showed that ranchers prefer the use of poison, as a cheap and efficient control method. The general public agrees on the effectiveness of poison but dislikes its use. From a list of 12 different control methods, ranchers preferred the lethal ones while general public preferred non-lethal methods. Tolerance is the threshold level of damage, above which ranchers are likely to seek mitigation, compensation or management of wildlife populations. Tolerance may be evaluated by calculating the amount of lamb losses below which most survey respondents rate damage as low, acceptable or tolerable. Most ranchers and general public indicated that they were not able to tolerate loss of a single animal from fox depredation. The second most numerous tolerance group, both for ranchers and general public, indicated they would tolerate depredation on between 1% and 5% of total lambs produced each year, before damage was unacceptable or intolerable. There is an urgent need for the development of an efficient, as well as selective control method, acceptable by ranchers, if we want to restore wild populations of non-target species actually depleted by the use of non-selective control methods in Santa Cruz.