Mamíferos de mediano y gran porte en corredores boscosos del pedemonte de yungas del noroeste argentino

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La transformación del ambiente natural constituye la principal amenaza para la conservación de muchas de las especies de mamíferos. La agricultura ha reducido la conectividad del piedemonte de Yungas con el Chaco, limitándola a corredores de hábitats naturales modificados que atraviesan una matriz de zonas transformadas. Mediante relevamientos con cámaras trampa, identificamos las especies medianas y grandes de mamíferos que utilizan corredores boscosos en dos sectores latitudinales del piedemonte de Yungas de Argentina. Estudiamos la diversidad de especies, la influencia de la distancia a través del corredor hasta el bosque continuo sobre la riqueza, cuantificamos similitudes en la composición y estructura de las comunidades entre ambas situaciones ambientales y evaluamos si los corredores constituyen zonas de paso o si los mamíferos establecen sus áreas de acción en los mismos. Registramos 22 especies en los corredores. Solo seis taxones registrados en bosque continuo no fueron documentados en los corredores, y tres fueron fotografiados solo en corredores. Para ambos sectores latitudinales, la equitatividad fue levemente mayor en corredores (aunque las diferencias fueron significativas solo en el sector norte), mientras que la riqueza de especies mostró tendencias opuestas entre sectores latitudinales, siendo mayor en el bosque del sector norte pero menor en el bosque del sector sur (aunque las diferencias no fueron significativas en ningún caso). No encontramos una influencia de la distancia al bosque continuo sobre la riqueza de mamíferos, ni diferencias importantes en la composición y estructura de las comunidades de ambas situaciones ambientales. En el norte, Dasyprocta punctata fue más frecuente en bosques continuos, mientras que Mazama gouazoubira y Leopardus pardalis prefirieron los corredores. En el sur, Leopardus pardalis y Pecari tajacu fueron más frecuentes en bosque continuo, mientras que Didelphis albiventris y las especies omnívoras utilizaron más los corredores. No encontramos diferencias significativas entre especies generalistas y especialistas en el uso de estos hábitats. Nuestro trabajo constituye la primera aproximación a esta temática en la región de las Yungas, aportando información relevante para el establecimiento de políticas de conservación.


Medium and large sized mammals in forested corridors of the yungas’ piedmont of northwestern Argentina. The transformation of the natural environment constitutes the main threat for the conservation of many mammal species. Agriculture has reduced the contact area of the Yungas piedmont forests with the Chaco region to corridors of modified natural habitats which cross the matrix of transformed areas. With camera traps surveys, we identified medium and large sized mammal species that use forested corridors in two latitudinal sectors of the Yungas piedmont forests in Argentina. We studied species diversity, the influence of the distance along the corridor to the continuous forest on species richness, and we evaluated whether the corridors are areas with established populations of these mammals. We recorded 22 species in the corridors. Only six species registered in the continuous forest were not recorded in the corridors, and three were only photographed in the corridors. For both latitudinal sectors, equitability was slightly higher in corridors (although differences only were significant in the northern sector) while species richness was different between latitudinal sectors, higher in the forest of the northern sector, but lower in the forest of the southern sector (although the differences were not significant in any case). We did not find any influence of the distance to the continuous forest on the richness of mammal species nor important differences in the composition and structure of the communities of both environmental situations. In the northern portion, Dasyprocta punctata was more frequently recorded in the continuous forest, whereas Mazama gouazoubira and Leopardus pardalis were more frequently recorded in the corridors. In the southern one, Leopardus pardalis and Pecari tajacu were more frequently recorded in the continuous forest, while Didelphis albiventris and the omnivore species more in the corridors. We did not find significant differences in the use of these habitats between the generalist and specialist species. This is the first study on this topic in the Yungas of Argentina, providing relevant information for the establishment of conservation policies.

Nuevos registros para el colicorto Monodelphis domestica (Wagner, 1842) (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae) en Argentina

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Se reportan dos nuevas localidades de registro para Monodelphis domestica en Argentina, que son a su vez las primeras para la provincia de Santiago del Estero. Los ejemplares fueron capturados en dos localidades del departamento Copo: i) cercanías de Caburé Sur (26° 07′ 37.4″ S, 62° 30′ 41.07″ O) y ii) Parque Provincial Copo (25° 55′ 2.54″ S, 61° 54′ 54.55″ O). Estos nuevos registros extienden 200 km al SSO la distribución conocida de este marsupial.


New records for the short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica (Wagner, 1842) (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae) in Argentina. We report two new localities for Monodelphis domestica in Argentina; these are also the first records for the province of Santiago del Estero. The species was captured in two localities of Copo Department: i) vicinity of Caburé Sur (S 26° 07′ 37.4″, W 62° 30′ 41.07″) and ii) Parque Provincial Copo (S 5° 55′ 2.54″, W 61° 54′ 54.55″). These records extend the known distribution of this marsupial 200 km SSW.

Bat assemblage of the Marumbi Peak State Park, Brazilian Atlantic rainforest

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The great biological diversity found in tropical forests has intrigued scientists for a long time. In this study, we used a bi-dimensional niche matrix to explain the coexistence of bat species in a Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest locality. Bats were caught with a set of mist nets and manually. The samples were taken between Jan/2009 and May/2010, totalizing 41 nights of effort (64 800 m².h, only of standardized efforts). The bi-dimensional niche matrix was assembled using functional groups (using predominant feeding habits) and size classes created a posteriori. Seven size classes were defined on the basis of forearm lengths; these classes were shown to be different using a Kruskal-Wallis test (p < 0.05). A total of nineteen bat species were recorded, of which sixteen were detected in systematical efforts. Sturnira lilium and Carollia perspicillata were the most abundant species. Five species were regarded as common, ten were intermediate, and four were rare in the studied assemblage. Most individuals sampled belonged to the frugivorous functional group. The aerial insectivore and frugivore functional groups were the richest functional groups, with seven species each. A niche matrix with 35 cells was created, of which 15 were occupied by bats; and only three of them occupied by two or more species. The analysis showed that a combination of feeding habits and size classes could account for resource sharing and coexistence of most of the nineteen bat species in the studied assemblage. The rest of coexistence can be explained by skull characteristics (gracile versus robust skulls for aerial insectivores) or some feeding specializations (for frugivore species).


Assembleia de morcegos do Parque Estadual Pico do Marumbi, Mata Atlântica Brasileira. A grande biodiversidade encontrada nas florestas tropicais tem intrigado cientistas por um longo tempo. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi usar uma matriz de nicho bi-dimensional para explicar a coexistência das espécies de morcegos em uma localidade de Mata Atlântica brasileira. Os morcegos foram capturados com um conjunto de redes de neblina e também manualmente. As amostragens foram realizadas entre janeiro de 2009 e maio de 2010, totalizando 41 noites de esforço (64 800 m².h apenas de esforço sistematizado). A matriz de nicho bi‑dimensional foi criada usando grupos funcionais (usando o hábito alimentar predominante) e classes de tamanho criadas a posteriori. Sete classes de tamanho foram definidas com base nos comprimentos do antebraço; essas classes mostraram-se diferentes usando o teste de Kruskal-Wallis (p < 0.05). Um total de dezenove espécies foram registradas, das quais dezesseis foram detectadas apenas em esforços sistematizados. Sturnira lilium e Carollia perspicillata foram as espécies mais abundantes. Cinco espécies foram comuns, dez intermediárias e quatro raras na assembleia estudada. A maioria dos indivíduos capturados pertencia ao grupo funcional dos frugívoros. Os grupos funcionais dos insetívoros aéreos e dos furgívoros foram os grupos mais ricos, com sete espécies cada um. Foi criada uma matriz de nicho com 35 células, das quais 15 foram ocupadas por espécies de morcego, sendo apenas três delas ocupadas por duas ou mais espécies. A análise mostrou que a combinação de hábitos alimentares com classes de tamanho poderia explicar a partilha de recursos e a coexistência da maioria das dezenove espécies de morcegos na assembleia estudada. A coexistência restante pode ser explicada pelas características cranianas (crânios delicados versus robustos — para insetívoros aéreos) ou alguma especialização alimentar (para as espécies frugívoras).

Variabilidad genética de visones americanos Neovison vison asilvestrados en la provincia de Santa Cruz: ¿se cumple la paradoja genética de las especies invasoras?

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Las especies invasoras constituyen una amenaza para la biodiversidad nativa. El éxito de las especies invasoras pese a su baja variabilidad genética se conoce como «paradoja genética». El visón americano (Neovison vison) fue introducido en varias regiones del planeta como Europa, Asia y América del Sur con fines peleteros. En Argentina fue introducido en la década de 1930 y, como resultado de la liberación de individuos en la naturaleza, lograron establecerse poblaciones silvestres en la región patagónica. El objetivo del presente trabajo es estudiar la diversidad genética de una población asilvestrada de la provincia de Santa Cruz y compararla con la de una población en cautiverio. Analizamos un fragmento de 359 pb de la región control de ADN mitocondrial y encontramos índices de variabilidad similares entre la población silvestre y la población cautiva. Al igual que en poblaciones asilvestradas de otras regiones del planeta, no se observa una reducción en la variabilidad genética en la población silvestre de Santa Cruz, probablemente como consecuencia de liberaciones y escapes recurrentes desde diversas fuentes de cautiverio.


Genetic variation of wild American mink (Neovison vison) in the Province of Santa Cruz. Is the genetic paradox of invasive species met? Alien species represent a threat to native biodiversity. The success of invasive species despite their reduced genetic diversity is known as “the genetic paradox”. The American mink (Neovison vison) was introduced in several regions of the world, like Europe, Asia and South America. In Argentina, they were introduced in the 1930s by the fur industry and wild populations were established in Patagonia due to liberations and escapes. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity of a wild American mink population of northern Santa Cruz Province and compared it with a captive population. We sequenced a 359-bp fragment of the mtDNA control region and found that genetic variability was similar between both groups. Like in other wild invasive populations, genetic variability was not reduced in the population of Santa Cruz, probably as a consequence of frequent releases and escapes from different sources of captive minks.

De venados, armadillos y coipos: los mamíferos autóctonos frente a los cambios en el uso del suelo, los manejos agropecuarios y la presencia de nuevos elementos en el paisaje rural

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La actividad agropecuaria ha sido, y continúa siendo, una gigantesca fuerza transformadora de nuestro planeta. Los agroecosistemas de las pampas, en Argentina, no han sido la excepción a estas transformaciones: a la expansión agrícola y la masiva adopción del sistema de siembra directa se le ha sumado el reordenamiento territorial y la intensificación de la ganadería. A su vez, obras de infraestructura (caminos, canalizaciones, terraplenes) impusieron nuevas configuraciones al paisaje rural. ¿Cómo ha respondido la mastofauna a estos cambios? En este trabajo sintetizamos los resultados registrados, entre los cuales podemos señalar: 1) un marcado uso diferencial de lotes por parte de las especies de armadillos más comunes, con mayor actividad de peludos (Chaetophractus villosus) en rastrojos agrícolas, y de mulitas (Dasypus hybridus) en campos ganaderos, 2) que la coexistencia entre venados de las pampas (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) y ganado vacuno solo es posible bajo sistemas de pastoreo que ofrezcan períodos de descanso a los potreros o bajo esquemas de baja carga ganadera, y 3) que los coipos (Myocastor coypus) utilizan diferencialmente los canales artificiales en períodos más secos. Se discuten las oportunidades y desafíos que estas respuestas tienen para la conservación de especies amenazadas o el manejo de especies potencialmente conflictivas, y se señalan algunas necesidades futuras de investigación en función de los cambios que continúan operando sobre estos sistemas.


Pampas deer, armadillos and coypus: autochthonous mammals and land use changes, agricultural managements and presence of new elements in the rural landscape. Agriculture has been and still remains as a huge transforming power of our planet. In Argentina, agroecosystems of the pampas have also changed accordingly, led by agricultural expansion and the massive adoption of the no-till system, along with territorial reorganization and intensification of livestock production. In turn, infrastructure (roads, channels, trenches) imposed new configurations to the rural landscape. How mammals have responded to these changes? Here we summarize the results recorded, among which we note: 1) a marked differential use of plots by the two most common species of armadillos, large hairy armadillos (Chaetophractus villosus) more active in crop stubbles, and southern long-nosed armadillos (Dasypus hybridus) more active in paddocks under livestock use; 2) the coexistence of Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) and cattle is only possible under grazing systems that provide resting periods to paddocks or under low stocking schemes; and 3) coypu (Myocastor coypus) differentially use artificial channels in drier periods. Opportunities and challenges derived from these responses are discussed for the conservation of endangered species or the management of potentially conflicting species, as well as some future research needs are identified in terms of changes that continue to operate on these systems.

Estrategias de conservación de la biodiversidad en paisajes forestales del Bajo Delta del Paraná – Uniendo a los actores clave de la región

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Las consecuencias de las prácticas forestales sobre la biodiversidad varían según el manejo silvícola, del agua y el hábitat sustituido. Las plantaciones forestales pueden ser diseñadas y manejadas para preservar las especies silvestres y mantener las funciones ecosistémicas. Sin embargo, se requiere de un trabajo interdisciplinario y del consenso entre los actores involucrados para lograr los objetivos de conservación deseados. En el Bajo Delta del Paraná (Buenos Aires) se encuentra la mayor extensión de bosques plantados de álamo (Populus spp.) y sauce (Salix spp.) de la Argentina, y ello fue a cuenta de la desaparición y transformación de los hábitats naturales y de las especies que los habitaban. En los últimos 25 años, las investigaciones por parte de universidades y el Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA) permitieron obtener un diagnóstico de situación y determinar los impactos locales sobre la biota. Estos resultados dispararon la demanda de un cambio en la forma de producción que permitiera compatibilizar producción con conservación. Así, en 2009 se firmó un convenio sobre gestión forestal sostenible entre el INTA y la Asociación Forestal Argentina, a través del cual científicos, productores y gestores desarrollaron en conjunto el Protocolo de «Estrategias de conservación de la biodiversidad en bosques plantados de salicáceas del Bajo Delta del Paraná». Dicho documento refleja las demandas de los distintos sectores y provee pautas para alcanzar la sustentabilidad de la producción forestal en la región, varias de las cuales ya han sido puestas en práctica con resultados alentadores. El consenso entre los actores involucrados ha sido clave en este proceso.


Biodiversity conservation strategies in forestry plantations in the lower Paraná River Delta—bringing together key regional actors. The consequences of forestry practices on biodiversity vary according to silvicultural treatments, water system management and the natural habitat that is replaced. Commercial plantations can be designed and managed to preserve wild species and to maintain ecosystem functions. However, interdisciplinary work and consensus among key stakeholders are required to achieve the desired conservation objectives. The Lower Delta of the Paraná River (Buenos Aires) contains the largest area in Argentina dedicated to commercial plantations of poplar (Populus spp.) and willow (Salix spp.), transforming the natural habitats and modifying the species that inhabited them. In the last 25 years, extensive research by universities and by the National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA) has documented these local impacts, and triggered demands for changes in production practices, to make production and conservation more compatible. In this context, an agreement on sustainable forest management was signed in 2009 between INTA and the Argentine Forest Association, through which scientists, forest producers, and managers jointly developed a protocol entitled “Biodiversity conservation strategies in salicaceae plantations in the Lower Delta of the Paraná River”. This document reflects the demands of different sectors and provides guidelines for achieving the sustainability of forestry production in this region. Several of these guidelines have already been implemented with encouraging results. The consensus among principal stakeholders has been key to this process.

Mamíferos e aves como instrumentos de educação e conservação ambiental em corredores de biodiversidade do Cerrado, Brasil

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Este trabalho pretende atender a uma das propostas sugeridas no Planejamento Participativo de Educação Ambiental dos municípios do Corredor de Biodiversidade Emas-Taquari, um projeto integrado ao Corredor Cerrado-Pantanal. O Corredor de Biodiversidade Emas-Taquari, localizado na região de Cerrado, abrange 8 municipios, e suas áreas núcleo são o Parque Nacional das Emas e o Parque Estadual das Nascentes do Rio Taquari. A comunidade representada nas oficinas de planejamento solicitou cursos, treinamentos e orientação sobre os mamíferos e aves existentes na região. Foi assim que se criaram os Grupos de Observação de Biodiversidade (GOB) com os seguintes objetivos: ajudar a comunidade a conhecer, reconhecer e valorizar as espécies nativas de aves e mamíferos, transformando-os em ferramentas de conservação para a Educação Ambiental; associar pesquisas, informações de geoprocessamento e Educação Ambiental; incentivar o ecoturismo na região; e proporcionar à comunidade o sentimento de se sentir parte da biodiversidade local. Nos municípios de Serranópolis e Mineiros, localizados em região de Cerrado, 31 pessoas foram treinadas. Este grupo encontrou 32 espécies de mamíferos e diversas espécies de aves. Alguns mamíferos observados são espécies ameaçadas de extinção constantes em listas oficiais (e.g., Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Panthera onca, Puma concolor, Chrysocyon brachyurus, e outros). Os animais silvestres que foram observados representam a biodiversidade local, o que contribui para a Educação Ambiental e conservação, além de aumentar o potencial ecoturistico da região.


Mammals and birds as tools for environmental education and conservation in biodiversity corridors of the Cerrado, Brazil. This work intends to respond to one of the proposals suggested in the sustainable participative planning of environmental education of the Municípios do Corredor de Biodiversidade Emas-Taquari, project that is integrated to the Biodiversity Corridor Cerrado-Pantanal. This biodiversity Corridor Emas-Taquari, located in the Cerrado region, comprises 8 townships and its nuclei areas are both the Parque Nacional das Emas and the Parque Estadual das Nascentes do Rio Taquari. The community represented in the planning requested a training course and orientation about mammals and birds present in the region. That was how the biodiversity watcher groups (Grupos de Observação de Biodiversidade, GOB) were created with the following objectives: to help the community to know, to recognize and to valorize the mammal and bird species that are present in their region, turning them into conservation tools for environmental education; to associate researches, geoprocessment informations and environmental education; to encourage the regional ecotourism; and to permit the community to feel part of the local biodiversity. Thirty-one people were trained in Serranópolis and Mineiros townships, located in the Cerrado region. They found 32 mammal species and many birds. Some mammals observed are endangered species present in official lists (e.g., Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Panthera onca, Puma concolor, Chrysocyon brachyurus, and others). The wild animals that were watched represent the local biodiversity, which contributes to environmental education and to conservation, and enhances the potential for the regional ecotourism.

On the continuing need for scientific collecting of mammals

Nature’s imperiled state during the present biodiversity crisis has caused many to question the justification for continued scientific collecting. Public opposition to and criticism of biological collecting is especially strong for “charismatic megafauna” like birds and mammals. This article reviews the various ways that biodiversity science is dependent on biological collections, drawing illustrations from on-going work on Neotropical mammals. Modern collections are directly responsible for many of the major discoveries now being made on this remarkable fauna. Not a single case is known where scientific collecting has imperiled or caused the extinction of any Neotropical mammal; all professional scientific organizations have guidelines to prevent this negative impact from developing. Biological collecting is an essential feature of data acquisition and validation. It must continue if biodiversity science is to inform global conservation efforts.


Sobre la continua necesidad de efectuar recolección científica de mamíferos. La actual crisis de la biodiversidad y sus consecuencias negativas en la naturaleza ha provocado el cuestionamiento a la recolección científica continua. La oposición pública y la crítica a la recolección biológica se hacen particularmente fuertes cuando se trata de  «megafauna carismática», como los pájaros y los mamíferos. El presente artículo revisa las diversas maneras en que la ciencia de la biodiversidad depende de las colecciones biológicas, ilustrándolas a partir de trabajos sobre mamíferos neotropicales, actualmente en curso. Las colecciones modernas son directamente responsables de muchos de los grandes descubrimientos actuales relacionados con esta notable fauna. No se conoce un solo caso en el cual la recolección científica haya puesto en peligro a un mamífero neotropical o haya causado su extinción. Todas las organizaciones científicas profesionales se ajustan a ciertas pautas para evitar este tipo de impacto. La recolección biológica es un aspecto esencial de la adquisición y validación de datos, y debe continuar si la ciencia de la biodiversidad quiere brindar información que contribuya efectivamente a la conservación a nivel mundial.